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ISSN: 2584-2153 (Online)

Title:  OLCIAS Journal

A Study of the Corona Virus's Negative Psychological Effects on Individuals

Mersellab Kheira

Higher School in Sports Sciences and Technology

Director of Social Sciences Laboratory Applied to Sports

Olympic City, Dely Ibrahim, Algiers, Algeria

Abstract Many crises that society faces, whether periodically or randomly, have historically caused  significant losses and damages to individuals and communities. These impacts can be social,  political, economic, and administrative. It is widely recognized that societal exposure to crises  poses continuous and random threats, affecting both material and human development aspects.  

After experiencing the health crisis, you returned to work to assist mentally distressed  individuals. You decided to write an article about the health crisis and the effects it left behind.  This is what you aim to explore in your article.  

Key words: health crisis; coronavirus; psychological well-being of individuals; social  relationships

Introduction Public relations is a social phenomenon that emerged with the advent of humanity on Earth and evolved as societies progressed. It stands as a natural outcome of social interaction among community members and institutions, utilized to gain public satisfaction, trust, and support. Additionally, various types and scopes of personal relationships are employed to achieve satisfaction among loved ones, friends, and family members."

The problem statement

"In recent times, societies have witnessed a series of diverse crises with varying causes and levels of impact. As integral parts of these societies, individuals may face crises that result in significant losses, necessitating immediate action accordingly. With a scientific and deliberate foundation, especially amidst technological and communicative advancements, communication has become a vital social necessity. It is viewed as fundamental for individuals to perform their tasks and a critical variable for their success. Consequently, people today place considerable emphasis on communication within their daily lives, which is as essential as other human and material resources for maintaining societal stability.

In our current era, it is crucial for individuals to manage their emotions effectively and understand how to maintain their psychological well-being. This article is grounded in the scientific principles of planning and analysis. One of its critical tasks is crisis management and response using crisis communication strategies. This involves scenario development and crafting messages to facilitate internal self-communication and interaction within one's social environment to protect psychological health and sustain relationships when unexpected crises like the COVID-19 pandemic arise. This is precisely the focus of our discussion: the negative impacts left on individuals' psychological well-being by the coronavirus, along with the following questions:

  1. Did the health crisis (COVID-19) have negative impacts on individuals' psychological well-being?

  2. Did the health crisis (COVID-19) affect social relationships?

- Hypotheses:

  1. The health crisis (COVID-19) left negative impacts on individuals' psychological well-being.

  2. The health crisis (COVID-19) affected social relationships.

"Personal reasons for choosing the topic."

"I have been interested in this topic for a long time due to my personal experience during the COVID-19 pandemic. I got married during this period when weddings were prohibited and my relatives and friends couldn't attend, which negatively affected my joy. Shortly after, my father passed away during this time, and people couldn't attend the funeral ceremonies due to health restrictions, which increased my sorrow and made me realize the importance of social relationships in human life, especially when they are good.

As for the objective reasons for choosing this topic, they lie in enriching scientific research and analyzing the psychological and social impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic."

The proposed article focuses on exploring these personal and theoretical experiences to understand the social and psychological effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, aiming to enrich scientific knowledge and raise awareness on the subject.


Conceptualization of "health crises":

A health crisis refers to a state of deterioration in the healthcare sector characterized by a significant increase in disease cases or a pandemic, resulting in heightened pressure on the healthcare system and challenges in managing emergency situations and responding promptly to developments. A health crisis also entails shortages in healthcare resources, medications, and necessary medical equipment, in addition to the economic and social impacts resulting from this situation.


Coronavirus, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), is a broad category of viruses that can cause disease in animals and humans. In humans, they can range from common colds to more severe respiratory illnesses such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), with the latest being COVID-19 (World Health Organization, 2020). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic.


The novel coronavirus, known as coronavirus, is a virus that causes a rapidly spreading infection in the respiratory system, leading to throat inflammation and sinus infections.

Individual Psychology:

The psychology of individuals is influenced by several different factors, including biological, psychological, and social factors."

Social Relationships:

Social relationships are the connections and interactions that unite individuals within societies and social groups. These relationships encompass various dimensions such as communication, cooperation, exchange, and mutual influence among individuals. Social relationships are essential for shaping individual and collective identities and play a vital role in influencing the behaviors and attitudes of individuals towards others and society in general.

Sociological Approach:

Each researcher has a theoretical approach that they rely on in their research journey. Scientific theory is a framework that represents a set of scientific facts and places them within an interconnected scientific method. It determines the type of facts that the researcher should seek and categorizes them while establishing relationships (Ali Awis Khair al-Din, 1999, p. 45).

Thus, theory is defined as a set of concepts, definitions, and propositions that provide us with an organized view of a phenomenon by specifying the various relationships between its variables. This is done in order to interpret or predict that phenomenon in the future. According to Maurice Ager, while a hypothesis is an assumption of the existence of a relationship between two or more variables, a theory represents a substantiated acknowledgment of the existence of such a relationship (Maurice Ager, 2006, p. 54).

In the context of our study's problem statement and posed questions, we have adopted the Situational Crisis Communication Theory (SCCT). This theory posits that by understanding the crisis situation well, individuals can determine appropriate response strategies. It focuses on crisis managers' roles in assessing the level of threat and damage resulting from the crisis if no suitable action is taken (Hisham Qadi, Rahima Sharqi, 2020).

Research Methodology:

Sample: I selected ten cases from among the consultations received at the Amana Center, where I conduct psychological and social consultations. This selection was made between the years 2022 and 2023, after a period following the health crisis.

Spatial Field: At the Amana Center, where I work as a psychological and social counselor.

Temporal Field: Between the years 2022 and 2023.

Research Tool: A questionnaire directed towards those affected by the health crisis of the coronavirus, consisting of 15 questions.

Research Approach: Analytical and Descriptive Methods:

The COVID-19 pandemic has been classified as a global health crisis by the World Health Organization, indicating a significant threat to public health. Managing such a crisis requires international cooperation and substantial efforts from governments, health organizations, and local communities. Common causes include the spread of infectious diseases, shortage of healthcare resources, weak healthcare infrastructure, and environmental changes. Rapid outbreaks can increase infections and patients, placing immense pressure on healthcare systems. Insufficient healthcare resources can negatively impact the ability to provide adequate healthcare and manage the crisis effectively. Insufficient healthcare infrastructure may also lead to inadequate hospitals and medical facilities.

Some Key Factors Affecting Individual Psychology:

1. Biological Factors: These include genetics, hormones, and overall health. These factors play a significant role in determining how individuals respond to different situations and their ability to cope with stressors.

2. Psychological Factors: These encompass personality, past experiences, personal beliefs, and how individuals interpret events. The way a person thinks and handles their emotions can greatly influence their mental state.

3. Social and Environmental Factors: This includes available social support, personal relationships, economic conditions, culture, education, and employment. These factors can significantly impact an individual's level of happiness and satisfaction with life.

4. Life Experiences and Events: Experiences such as the loss of close relatives or friends or significant successes can profoundly affect psychological well-being.

5. Mental and Physical Health: Physical and mental illnesses can have a significant impact on one's psychological state, leading to changes in mood and cognitive functioning.

In summary, individual psychology results from a complex interaction of several factors. Understanding these factors can help improve understanding of individuals' psychological states and provide necessary support when needed.

If you need further assistance or adjustments, feel free to ask!

Lack of health awareness: Lack of health awareness and poor healthcare systems can lead to an inability to recognize health risks and take necessary preventive measures. [World Health Organization]

Concept of Coronavirus:


The COVID-19 pandemic marked a pivotal turning point globally. In late 2019, the virus emerged in the Chinese city of Wuhan, and this term has since been widely used operationally, which we will attempt to clarify.


Coronavirus, known as novel coronavirus, is a virus that causes infections with rapid spread in the respiratory system and inflammations of the throat and sinus cavities.


The World Health Organization defined it as a broad strain of viruses that may cause disease in both animals and humans. It causes respiratory diseases in humans ranging in severity from common colds to severe conditions such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), with the most recent being COVID-19.

Symptoms of Coronavirus:

The most common symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, cough, and fatigue. Some patients may also experience loss of taste or smell, conjunctivitis, headache, muscle pain, nasal congestion or runny nose, sore throat, diarrhea, nausea or vomiting, and various types of skin rash. These symptoms are usually mild and develop gradually. Some individuals may be infected but show no symptoms (asymptomatic) and do not feel sick. Most people (about 80%) recover from the illness without needing special treatment. However, approximately 1 out of every 6 people who contract COVID-19 develop a severe illness and experience severe symptoms, which include difficulty breathing or shortness of breath, confusion, loss of appetite, persistent pain or pressure in the chest, and require hospitalization. Older adults and those with underlying medical conditions such as high blood pressure, heart problems, or diabetes are more likely to develop serious illnesses. Individuals with a fever, cough, or difficulty breathing should seek medical care promptly.

How Coronavirus Spreads:

Coronavirus spreads from person to person through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or breathes. It can also spread indirectly when these droplets land on objects and surfaces around the infected person and another person touches these objects or surfaces and then touches their eyes, nose, or mouth. This is why it's important to maintain a distance of about one to two meters (3-6 feet) from the sick person. Considering that some individuals may not show symptoms while infected with the virus, maintaining a physical distance of one to two meters is crucial regardless of whether the other person initially appears sick.

Prevention Methods for Coronavirus:

Regular hand washing with soap and water or alcohol-based sanitizer helps kill viruses on hands. Maintain aa distance of 1-2 meters (3-6 feet) between yourself and anyone coughing or sneezing to prevent the spread of the virus. Follow physical distancing rules and avoid touching your eyes, nose, or mouth, as they can pick up viruses and transfer them to your body. Practice good respiratory hygiene by covering your mouth and nose with your bent elbow or tissue when coughing or sneezing and disposing of used tissue immediately.

If you feel unwell, seek medical care and call in advance, following the guidance of your local health authority. Wear a mask throughout your illness and when you have symptoms to prevent the spread of COVID-19. Wear a mask as part of comprehensive public health measures to prevent the spread of COVID-19, even if you are not infected.

Stay informed about COVID-19 hotspots and avoid traveling to these areas, especially if you are elderly or have underlying medical conditions. By following these guidelines, you can help protect yourself and others from the virus.

The COVID-19 pandemic has been a significant experience that has impacted individuals and societies. It has led to increased social closeness through social media, evoking nostalgia for the past. The pandemic has left negative psychological effects on individuals, with 100% experiencing chest tightness, 80% suffering from forgetfulness, domestic problems, lack of concentration, and neglect (Boualem Bouchami , 2007). These effects are correlated with the intensity of the health crisis.

The pandemic has also affected social relationships, with many experiencing strained family, friendship, and workplace relationships due to fear of infection and death. As the severity of the crisis increased, relationships were strained and shifted to virtual interactions, such as phone calls and Facebook. This supports Hypothesis 1, partially.

The pandemic has highlighted the importance of resilience and preparedness in facing crises.

In summary, the study suggests that both hypotheses have been substantiated to varying degrees based on the data presented, reflecting the substantial impact of the COVID-19 health crisis on both individual psychology and social relationships.


The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted public health worldwide, necessitating international cooperation and significant efforts from governments, health organizations, and local communities. Measures like social distancing, quarantine, vaccination, mask-wearing, and regular sanitization have been crucial in combating its spread. The crisis has deeply affected individuals' psychological well-being and social relationships, with challenges such as oxygen shortages, hospital capacity issues, consumption resource deficiencies, and job loss.

The study posits two hypotheses: the health crisis left negative psychological impacts on individuals and affected social relationships. Social relationships are essential for building the social and psychological fabric of individuals, providing emotional and psychological support, fostering a sense of belonging, enhancing self-confidence, and contributing to cohesive communities.

Psychological well-being is essential for mental, emotional, and physical health, involving self-care, stress management, maintaining social connections, engaging in hobbies, and developing emotional flexibility. Regular exercise, healthy diet, and social connections contribute to overall well-being.


  1. Ali Awus Khair al-Din (1999). Guide to Scientific Research, Publisher: Dar al-Fikr alArabi, Cairo.

  2. Maurice Angres. (2006).Research Methodology in Humanities; Translator: Bouzid Sabah Arwi and others. Dar al-Qasba for Publishing, Algeria.

  3. Hisham Qadi, Rahima Sharqi.( 2020). "Sociology: A New Perspective after the Pandemic," Conference Proceedings,.

  4. Boualem Bouchami (2007). "Economic and Legal Concepts," Dar Huma, Algeria,

  5. Muatasim Abdul Aziz Saeed Mohammed.(2019). "The Role of Public Relations Strategies in Developing the Performance of Media Institutions," Graduate College, Sudan University of Science and Technology

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